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الخميس, 12, يناير, 2023
كُتب بواسطة : أ. دنيا عدنان خليل

منظمات المجتمع الممولة للمشروعات الصغيرة ودورها في النهوض بالمرأةالاقتصادية

البـــــاحثـــة: أماني عبدالله مباركعبدالله

إلاشــــراف:أ.م.د/ عبدالله داؤود باوزير

1439 هــ - 2018 م

ملخص الدراسة:

تناولتهذه الدراسة موضوع " منظمات المجتمع المدني الممولة للمشروعاتالصغيرة ودورها في النهوض بالمرأة اقتصادياً " ,فقد هدفت هذهالدراسة إلى تسليط الضوء على أهمية الدور الذي تقوم به منظمات المجتمع المدني فيمساعدة المرأة من خلال أعطاء قروض صغيرة لعمل مشروع صغير وتوفيرمن خلاله دخل لهاونهوضها اقتصادياً , كذلك تبرز هذه الدراسة أهمية المشروعات الصغيرة بشكل عام , تمتقسيم الدراسة إلى أربعة فصول , كان اهمها دور المنظمات والمشروعات الصغيرة .

ولتحقيقالهدف من هذه الدراسة اتبعت الباحثة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي , تكون مجتمع منمنظمات المجتمع المدني في محافظة عدن العاملة على تمويل المشروعات الصغيرة وعددها(8) كما استخدمت الباحثة العينة العمدية ( القصدية) حيث تم اختيار (3) مفردات منكل مؤسسة ممن سوف يفيد الدراسة وهم صناع القرار في المنظمة وممن لهم صلةبالمشروعات الصغيرة او برامج الاقراض فيكون عددهم ( 24 ) ,اما بالنسبة للقسمالثاني لعينة الدراسة تم الاعتماد على أسلوب العينة بدلا من أسلوب الحصر الشاملوذلك نظرا لكبر حجم وضخامة مجتمع الدراسة وتباعد مفرداتها جغرافيا ولأنها عينة غيرمتاحة تم استخدام عينة عشوائية قوامها20) مفردة منكل مؤسسة يكون الاجمالي (160) ,حيث تم توزيع (160) على المستفيدات ولكن تم استرداد(140) استبانة منها.

لتحقيق أغراض الدراسة تم استخدام الاساليب الاحصائية فيتحليل بيانات الدراسة عن طريق برنامج (SPSS) برنامج الرزمالإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية Statistical Package for theSocial Sciences ، ومعاملالاتفاق بين أفراد العينة الاستطلاعية (معادلة كوبر) لقياس درجة موثوقيةالاستبانتين .

توصلت الدراسة إلى أن لمنظمات المجتمع المدني دور كبير فيتمكين المرأة اقتصاديا ولو ان هذه العملية لا تزال تتم بتحفيز واعتماد كبير على العاملالخارجي ومصادر تمويله , وبمجرد شحة أو غياب تلك المصادر تتعرض المشروع لأنهياروهذه كانت أهم المشاكل والتحديات التي تواجه مالكات المشاريع , وإن معظم المشروعاتالتي تقوم بها بالمرأة يسودها أنماط تقليدية والتي تعتمد على تنمية المهاراتالحرفية والصناعية التقليدية فتحصربالمرأة في مشروعات متناهية الصغر وبالكاد تتجاوز حاجز المشروعات الصغيرة وذلكعائد لصغر القرض المقدم من الجمعيات والمؤسسات

قدمت الباحثة مجموعة من التوصيات منها حث الجهات المعنية(حكومية ، غير حكومية) ، ومانحين  بإيلاءاهتمام أكبر بمشاريع ما بعد التدريب والتأهيل للنساء ، لضمان استفادتهن الفعليةمما يحصلن عليه من مهارات تدريبية وتأهيلية ، عبر التوظيف أو بدء ممارسة أنشطةمدرة للدخل .

Abstract

This research study is having thesubject: "Civil Society Organizations thatprovide micro finance tosmall projects and their role for economic revival ofwomen". This study goals to highlighten theimportance of role of these organizations of civil society inhelping women bygiving them small loans for small projects so that they savethese incomeand  their economic revival.

To realize this goal the studyresearch followeddescriptive and analytic means and that the society of thestudy is in twodivisions. The first division consists of civil societyorganizations in Adenprovince working on funding of small projects and they are8 organizations. Thesecond division consists of all the benefactors by theseorganizations usingintentional sample of intent for the first division of thesociety and that 3variables were chosen for every corporation from which thestudy research wouldbenefit and their number amounts to 24. As for the seconddivision for thesample study the method of sampling was used instead ofcomprehensive surveyand that was because of large volume of society and their locationswere fargeographically the samples were not easily available and so randomsamples werechosen of 20 variables from all corporations so that the total was160 and thatall the 160 benefactors were distributed but only response of 140was returnedby questionnaire.

To realize the goals of the studyresearch analyticmethods were used in analyzing data by using SPSS programPackage for theSocial Sciences statically and coefficients of agreement betweensample studyusing Cooper formula to measure the truthfulness in thequestionnaire andarithmetical mean and standard deviation for the individualsof sample study ofbenefactors.

The following was the result ofthestudy research:

-        That the civilsociety with thenational volunteering organizations have assumed themselves ina complete mannerin activities of growth for the revival of women economicallyeven when theseoperations still reserve and depend greatly on the foreignfactor for theirsource of funds.

-        That 57.1% ofthe sample study ofthe benefactors who took loans for their projects wereexcellent and the ratioreached 42.9 who were benefited by these projects in agood manner.

-        The most of thedistinctiverelation between the societies and organizations with the sourcesof funds is relationof provision such that the ratio of supporting was highestto the other ratiosin view of the members of societies and organizations andthe ratio was 82.6%then comes the relation of supervision and marketing theratio of 56.5%

-        The small scaleloans and thefunding given to the women to encourage their activities forsmall income dependgreatly on the distributive factor of source of incomeprovided easily and byjust lack of this factor of its absence affects in fallrapidly of this projectsfor this reason this matter needs care and planningbefore taking action andthis needs lawful and organizing principles clear forestablishing and spreadingthe projects this ensures enough for thecontinuation of these projects and doesnot affect them

-        Most of theprojects that thewomen have carried out prevails traditional style and thatdepends on the growthof artful skills and small scale manufacturing so thesewomen are surrounded byinfinite zero and scarcely one would overcome theseobstruction of small scaleprojects and that is because of small scale loansgiven to them by the societiesand organizations.

-        All thesocieties andorganizations and owners of the projects face varied problems andchallenges andmain is the lack of funds and that affects the reserves and thatthey cannotcover a large volume of loan seekers and that results in limitedloans.

-        The outcome ofthese projects inratio is great for the successful women economically andrevival of their livingsuch that the maximum ratio reached 87.5% by theproject owners and then comesnext earnings and raising of standards of livingand the maximum ratio reachedis 83.3%

Based on these points abovetheresearcher has following recommendations:

        The government should foster theprojects and administrative procedures to foster the organizations anddevelopment of the projects small and smaller and medium and that wouldguarantee high rate of benefits by the poor women from these projects and thatthe funding sources should be permanent for funding small loans such that itwould change into societies or companies sustainable through self-provision.

        If the government would give aidto these projects by increasing their funds needed with small interest if it isnecessary and with small installments for repayments and establishing specificdepartment such a specific bank to guarantee the repayments of those loans forthe problem of this repayment of loans is complicated besides funding of theseprojects.

        The care of specific departments(governmental and non-governmental ) and the donators should give utmost careto the projects after training and rehabilitation of women to guarantee theirbenefits effectively that they have skills from those training andrehabilitation programs by giving them employment or practice larger scaleactivities for more income.

        The societies and organizationsthat are providing funds to the small scale projects should have plannedprograms and routine classes free of charge in administration of projects andin marketing the products in a good manner before those loan seekers apply forthe loans so that they are able to administer the project in a proper mannerand follow up the continuation of the project during the period through whichthey repay the loans and provide them guidance to guarantee continuation of theproject and non-failure of the project.

        The funding societies andorganizations of the projects should oblige the loan seekers to have a studyfirst and forward it before seeking loan that is to ensure that they are takingloans for serious project and not for personal affairs.

        Preparing data basis – data bank– where all the records are enlisted that are necessary for the project smalland medium about the markets and agreements and opportunities available andprincipal necessities for each project and about the local markets such thatthe investor can view the project in the list and that can be done by erectingwebsite on internet.

        Helping the advertising media toencourage the marketing of the manufactured products and showrooms areestablished and mark out successful experiences and high light them.

        The government should let thegovernmental banks and other commercial banks to be ready to provide cash flowthat are needed by those societies and organizations though growth provisionsof funding procedures with an acceptable interest rates so that the societiesand organizations can foster and guarantee the loans and that they would befirst responsible for that and by this way the problem of funding would come toend for many projects.